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1.0 foreword

  1. Tigerstedt, C. et al (2006). Health in alcohol policies: the European Union and it's Nordic member states. In Ståhl, T. et al (eds). Health in all policies: prospects and potentials. Finland: Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.
  2. Watt, G. (2008). What then shall we do. Glasgow Centre for Population Health. Available at,om_docman/task,doc_download/gid,388/ [accessed 02/12/09].
  3. Gilson, L. (2006). Trust in health care: theoretical perspectives and research needs. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 20 359-75.

2.0 introduction

  1. Gilson, L. (2003). Trust and the development of health care as a social institution. Social Science & Medicine, 56 1453-1468.
  2. Thomas, S. et al (2007). The MESH approach: strengthening public health systems for the MDGs. Health Policy, 83 180-85.
  3. World Health Organization 2008. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health: final report of the commission on social determinants of health. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Available [accessed 11/12/09].

3.1 on investing in mental capital

  1. O'Connor, R.C. et al (2009). Self-harm in adolescents: self-report survey in schools in Scotland. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(Jan) 68-72. Available at
    [accessed 17/11/09]
  2. The Foresight Project (2008). Mental capital and wellbeing project, London: Government Office for Science.
  3. Lando, J. et al (2006). A logic Model for the integration of mental health into chronic disease prevention and health promotion. Prev Chronic Dis., 3(2) A61.
  4. Beddington J. et al(2008). The Mental Wealth of Nations. Nature 455 1057-1060.
  5. Taylor, L. et al (2007). Public Health Interventions to promote positive mental health and prevent mental health disorders among adults, London: NICE.
  6. Mental Health Foundation (2006). Feeding minds: the impact of food on mental health.
  7. Mutrie, N. (2000). The relationship between physical activity and clinically defined depression. In Biddle, S.J.H. et al (eds) Physical activity and psychologicalwell-being. London: Routledge.
  8. Roth, T. & Fonagy, P. w(2005). What works for whom. London: Guildford Press.
  9. Carr, A. (2000). What works for children and adolescents?: A critical review of psychological interventions with children, adolescents and their families. London: Routledge.
  10. Paykel, E.S. et al. (1999). Prevention of relapse in residual depression by cognitive therapy. A controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 56(Sept) 825-835.
  11. London School of Economics (2006). The Depression Report: A new deal for depression and anxiety disorders, London: LSE.
  12. Scottish Government (2007). Better health, better care action plan, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
  13. NHS Education for Scotland (2007). Psychology News: NES psychology newsletter, (August). Edinburgh: NES.
  14. Scottish Executive (2006). Delivering for mental health. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.

3.2 mutual aid and alcohol recovery

  1. Borsay, P. (2005). Bingeing Britain. BBC History magazine; 6(7) 44-48.
  2. Berridge, V. et al (2007). The normalisation of binge drinking? An historical and crosscultural investigation with implications for action. Report to the Alcohol Education and Research Council.Available at
    [accessed 17/11/09].
  3. Scottish Government (2008). Costs of alcohol use and misuse in Scotland, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
  4. White, W. (1996). Pathways from the culture of addiction to the culture of recover,. Minnesota: Hazelden.
  5. Berglund, K. (2008). Socially stable alcoholics: What characterises them? Drinking patterns, personality and health aspects of psychosocial and clinical importance. University of Gothenburg: Department of Psychology. Available at: [accessed 17/11/09].
  6. Al-anon Family Groups (1981). This is Al-anon, New York.
  7. Barber, J. G. & Gilbertson, R. (1998). Evaluation of a self-help manual for the female partners of heavy drinkers. Research on Social Work Practice, 8 141-151.
  8. Tuchfeld, B.S. (1981). Spontaneous remission in alcoholics: Empirical observations and theoretical implications. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 42(7) 626-641.
  9. Cunningham, J.A. et al (1995). Resolution from alcohol problems with and without treatment: Reasons for change. Journal of Substance Abuse, 7(3) 365-372.
  10. Dawson, D.A. et al (2006). Estimating the effect of help-seeking on achieving recovery from alcohol dependence. Addiction,101 824-834.
  11. Sampson, R.J. & Laub, J.H. (2003). Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70+. Criminology, 41(3) 555-592.
  12. Project MATCH Research Group (1997). Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: Project MATCH post-treatment drinking outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58 7-29.
  13. De Leon, G. (1984).The therapeutic community. Study of effectiveness. DHSS Publication No. ADM 84-1286, Rockville MD: National Institute of Drug Abuse.
  14. Gossop, M. et al (2001). NTORS after five years, London: National Addiction Centre.
  15. McKeganey N. et al (2006). Abstinence and drug abuse treatment: results from the Drug Outcome Research in Scotland study. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy, 13(6) 537-550.
  16. White, W. (2008). Recovery management and recovery-oriented systems of care: Scientific rationale and promising practices. Pittsburgh, PA: Northeast Addiction Technology Transfer Center, Great Lakes Addiction Technology Transfer Center, Philadelphia Department of Behavioral Health & Mental Retardation Services. Available at [accessed 17/11/09].
  17. Humphreys, K. et al (1999). Do enhanced friendship networks and active coping mediate the effect of self-help groups on substance abuse? Ann Behav Med., 21(1) 54-60.
  18. Ye, Y. & Kaskutas, L.A. (2009) Using propensity scores to adjust for selection bias when assessing the effectiveness of Alcoholics Anonymous in observational studies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 104(1-2) 56-64.
  19. Ferri, M. et al (2006). Alcoholics Anonymous and other 12-step programmes for alcohol dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews/, 3. Art. No.: CD005032. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005032.pub2.
  20. Day, E. et al (2005). United Kingdom substance misuse treatment workers' attitudes toward 12-step self-help groups. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 29 321-327.
  21. Lees, J. et al (1999). Therapeutic community effectiveness: a systematic international review of therapeutic community treatment for people with personality disorders and mentally disordered offenders. University of York, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, 214.
  22. Binks, C. et al (2006). Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1. Art. No.: CD005652. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005652.
  23. NHS Lothian Web Site. Available at [accessed 17/11/09].

3.3 maintaining a healthy weight

  1. Bromley, C. et al (eds) (2005). Scottish Health Survey 2003. Volume 2: Adults. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
  2. Calle, E.E. et al (1999). Body Mass Index and mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults. N Engl J Med, 341(15).
  3. Stevens, J., et al. (1998). The effect of age on the association between body-mass index and mortality. N Engl J Med, 338(1).
  4. Walker, A. (2003). The Cost of Doing Nothing - the economics of obesity in Scotland. Nottingham: National Obesity Forum.
  5. Mulvihill, C. & Quigley, R. (2003). The management of obesity & overweight: an analysis of reviews of diet, physical activity & behavioural approaches. Evidence Briefing, London: HDA.
  6. Wardle, J. & Cooke, L. (2005). The impact of obesity on psychological well-being. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 19(3):421-40.
  7. Butland, B. et al (2007). Tackling obesities: future choices - project report., London: Government Office for Science, The Foresight Project, 140.
  8. Physical Activity Task Force (2003). Lets make Scotland more Active. A strategy for Physical Activity. Scottish Executive: Edinburgh. Available at:
    [accessed 02/12/09].
  9. Ainsworth, B. et al. (2000). Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 32(9Suppl):S498-504
  10. Health Scotland (2006). Review of the Scottish diet action plan - progress and impacts 1996 - 2005, Glasgow 64. Available at
    [accessed 16/11/09].
  11. Examples of projects - Sustainable Development Commission. Available at:
    [accessed 17/11/09]. Forth Valley Food Links. Available at: [accessed 17/11/09].
  12. Soil Association - Available at
    [accessed 17/11/09].
  13. Plunkett Foundation - Making local food work. Available at
    [accessed 18/11/09].
  14. DEFRA (2006). Unlocking opportunities; lifting the lid on public sector food procurement, London: DEFRA. Available at
    [accessed 18/11/09].
  15. Fareshare. Available at [accessed 03/12/09].
  16. Health Promoting Health Service.Available at
    [accessed 03/12/09].
  17. Ståhl, T. et al (eds). Health in all policies: prospects and potentials. Finland: Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.

3.4 physical activity

  1. McCormack, G. et al (2004). An update of recent evidence of the relationship between objective and self-report measures of the physical environment and physical activity behaviours. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7 81-92.
  2. Owen, N. et al. (2004). Understanding environmental influences on walking: review and research agenda. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(1) 67-76.
  3. Scottish Executive (2006). Nutritional guidance for early years: Food choices for children aged 1 - 5 Years in early education and childcare settings, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
  4. Scottish Government (2005). Scottish Health Survey 2008, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
  5. Scottish Executive (2005). Scottish Health Survey 2003, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
  6. Sahrif, S. et al (no date). Active for life guidelines: promoting physical activity with black & minority ethnic groups, London: Health Education Authority.
  7. Scottish Executive (2003). Let's make Scotland more active: A strategy for physical activity, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at:
    [accessed 16/11/09].
  8. Scottish Government (2007). Better Health, Better Care Action Plan, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
  9. Scottish Executive (2006). Scotland's National Transport Strategy, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
  10. Scottish Government (2008). Equally well: Report of the ministerial task force on health inequalities, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
  11. Scottish Executive (2003). Let's make Scotland more active: A strategy for physical activity, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at
    [accessed 16/11/09].
  12. French, J. et al (2006). Social Marketing And Public Health: Theory And Practice. Canada: Oxford University Press. Available at [accessed 03/1209].
  13. West Lothian Council & NHS Lothian (2007). West Lothian on the move strategy.
  14. Physical Activity and Health Alliance (2008). Scottish Health Survey 2008. Available at [accessed 11/12/09].

3.5 mutuality and oral health

  1. Dahlgren, G. & Whitehead, M. (1991). Policies and strategies to promote social equity in health. Stockholm, Institute for Futures Studies.
  2. Sheiham A & Watt R G (2000). The Common Risk Factor Approach: a rational basis for promoting oral health. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 28 399 - 406.

4.1 integrated care for children's services

  1. Scotland's Ministers vision. Available at
    [accessed 18/11/09].
  2. Scottish Government (2008). Getting it right for every child: a guide, Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available at [accessed 18/11/09].
  3. Scottish Executive (2007). Looked after children & young people: we can and must do better, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at
    [accessed 18/11/09].
  4. HMIe (2008). Count us in: Improving the education of our looked after children, Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available at [accessed 18/11/09].
  5. The Scottish Government (2008). The Early Years Framework. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available at [accessed 09/02/10]
  6. Nurse Family Partnership (no date). Outcomes of the trials. Available at:
    [accessed 12/01/10].
  7. Kitzman H, et al. (1997). Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 278: 644-52.
  8. Barnes J, et al (2008). Nurse-Family Partnership programme - second year pilot sites implementation in England: pregnancy and postpartum period. London: DCSF.
  9. Barnes J, et al (2008). Nurse-Family Partnership programme - first year pilot sites in England: pregnancy and postpartum period. London: DCSF
  10. Olds D L, et al (1986). Preventing child abuse and neglect: a randomized trial of a nurse home visitation. Paediatrics, 78: 65-78.
  11. Olds D L, et al (1997). Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect. Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA, 278: 637-43.
  12. Olds D L et al (1998). Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children's criminal and antisocial behaviour: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 280: 1238-44.
  13. Olds D L, Kitzman H, hanks C, et al. Effects of nurse home visitating on maternal and child functioning: age 9 follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 2007; 120: e832-45.

4.2 helping people stay well

  1. World Health Organisation (2009). The financial crisis and global health. Report of a high-level consultation. Information note/2009/1, Geneva: WHO.Available at
    [accessed 18/11/09].
  2. Scottish Executive (2005). Delivering for health, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at [accessed 18/11/09].
  3. LTCAS & Scottish Government (2008). "Gaun Yersel!". The Self Management Strategy for Long Term Conditions in Scotland. Available at
    [accessed 18/11/09].
  4. Joint Improvement Team (no date). Talking Points: A personal outcomes approach. Available at [Accessed 18/11/09].
  5. Talking Points. Available at
    [accessed 03/12/09].
  6. Scottish Government (2007). Better health, better care action plan, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
  7. Gilson, L. (2002). Trust and development of healthcare as a social institution. Social Science & Medicine, 56 1453-1468.
  8. Stewart, A. (2008). An (Interim) Evaluation of the User Defined Service Evaluation Tool (UDSET) in the Pilot Sites. Glasgow: Glasgow School of Social Work Joint Improvement Team. Available at [accessed 11/12/09].

4.3 independent living in a mutual society

  1. Disability Rights Commission on Social Care and Independent Living. Available at [accessed 03/12/09].
  2. NHS Lothian and Partners (2007). Our lives our way - Lothian joint physical and complex disability strategy. Edinburgh: NHS Lothian. Available at
    [accessed 03/12/09].
  3. Joint Lothian Learning Disability Strategy Review. Summary available at:
    [accessed 03/12/09].
  4. HM Government (2009). Shaping the future together. London: HM Government. Available at publicationsandstatistics/publications/publicationspolicyandguidance/dh_102338 [accessed 03/12/09].
  5. People First (Scotland). Available at
    [accessed 03/12/09].

4.4 care at the end of life

  1. Murray, SA. and Sheikh, A. (2008). Care for all at the end of life. Figure 1, the three main trajectories of decline at the end of life. British Medical Journal, 336 958-959.
  2. Gold Standards Framework Scotland. Available at [accessed 03/12/09].
  3. Lothian Palliative Care Guidelines. Available at [accessed 03/12/09].
  4. Spiller et al (2007). NHS Lothian do not attempt resuscitation policy. Edinburgh: NHS Lothian. Available at
    [accessed 03/12/09].

4.5 information governance - matter of trust

  1. NHS Scotland (2005). A brief guide to information governance, Edinburgh, ISD Scotland Publications. Available at [Accessed 18/11/09].
  2. HM Government (1998). Data protection act 1998. Available at
    [accessed 03/12/09].
  3. Council of Europe (1950). European convention on human rights. Available at
    [accessed 03/12/09].
  4. HM Government (2005). Re-use of public sector information regulations 2005. London: HMSO. Available at [accessed 03/12/09].
  5. Scottish Government (2008). Records management: NHS code of practice (Scotland). Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available at [accessed 11/12/09].
  6. NHS Scotland (2003). NHS Code of Practice on Protecting patient Confidentiality, Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
  7. Information Governance website. Available at: [Accessed 18/11/09]. Quality Improvement Scotland website. Available at [accessed 18/11/09].
  8. Caldicott Principles: Available at [accesses 20/11/09].

5.1 H1N1 - a lothian response to swine flu

  1. World Health Organisation (no date). Avian influenza. Available at
    [accessed 02/12/09].
  2. Scottish Government Resilience Room (2009). Scottish Government Situation Report (SitRep) 03: swine influenza. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
  3. Chan, M. (2009a). Swine influenza. Geneva: WHO. Available at
    [accessed 02/12/09].
  4. Chan, M. (2009b). Swine influenza. Geneva: WHO. Available at
    [accessed 02/12/09].
  5. BBC News (2009). World moves to contain flu spread. Available at:
    [accessed 27/04/09].
  6. Sturgeon, N. (2009a). Swine Flu Statement. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. [accessed 29/04/09].
  7. Chan, M. (2009c). Influenza A(H1N1). Geneva: WHO. Available at
    news/statements/2009/ h1n1_20090429/en/index.html
    [accessed 02/12/09].
  8. HM Government (2009). Swine Flu Outbreak Top Lines Briefing No. 13. Circulated to category 1 and 2 responders. London: Cabinet Office.
  9. Chan, M. (2009d). World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic. Geneva: WHO. Available at
    [accessed 02/12/09].
  10. World Health Organisation (2009). Clinical features of severe cases of pandemic influenza. Pandemic (H1N1)briefing note 13. Geneva: WHO.
    [accessed 20/10/09].
  11. Sukkar, E. (2009). Australia approves CSL's H1N1 vaccine. SCRIP. [accessed 30/11/09].
  12. Woods, K. (2009). Annex A - Vaccine information, in Letter to Health Boards 13 October 2009 - Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccination Programme. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
  13. Baxter International Inc. (2009). Baxter Receives European Commission Approval for CELVAPAN H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Vaccine (07/10/09). Business Wire. [accessed 02/12/09].
  14. Department of Health (2009). Priority Groups for the vaccination programme.
    [accessed 02/12/09].
  15. Public Health Directorate (2009), NHS Lothian (2009).
  16. Department of Health (2009).Important information about swine flu. Swine Flu information leaflet.
    [accessed 02/12/09].

5.2 norovirus on a cruise liner

  1. NHS (2007). NHS Choices - Your health, your choices: Health A-Z; Norovirus. Available at
    [Accessed 18/11/09].
  2. World Health Organisation (2005). International Health Regulations. Geneva, WHO. Available at [Accessed 18/11/09].

5.3 public health (scotland) act 2008

  1. WHO (2004). Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Geneva: WHO. Available at[accessed 11/12/09].[Accessed 10/12/09]
  2. Coker, R. & Martyn, R. (2006). The importance of law for public health policy and practice. Public Health, 120 2-7.
  3. Public Health (Scotland) Act 1897 (c.38). Available at
    [accessed 18/11/09].
  4. Infectious Diseases (Notification) Act 1889 (c.72). Available at [accessed 18/11/09].
  5. Public Health etc. (Scotland) Act 2008 (asp 5). Available at
    [accessed 18/11/09].
  6. World Health Organisation (2005). International Health Regulations. Geneva, WHO. Available at [Accessed 18/11/09].

5.5 an outbreak of measles

  1. NHS (no date).Measles. Available at [accessed 14/12/09].

6.0 looking forward

  1. Health Facilities Scotland (2009). Carbon footprint of NHS Scotland (1990-2004). NHS Scotland.
  2. Scottish Executive (2006). Environmental Management Policy for NHS Scotland, NHS Circular: HDL(2006)21, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Health Department, Finance Directorate.
  3. CSDH (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Geneva: World Health Organisation.
  4. Chief Scientist Office (2009). Investing in research, improving health, Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
  5. Stafford B. & Duffy D. (2009). Review of evidence on the impact of economic downturn on disadvantaged groups. Department for Work and Pensions Working Paper No 68, London: DWP. Available at [accessed 13/01/10].
  6. Keskimaki I. (2003). How did Finland's economic recession in the early 1990s affect socio-economic equity in the use of hospital care? Social Science & Medicine. 56(7) 1517-30.
  7. Mercer, S.W. & Watt, C.M. (2007). The Inverse Care Law: Clinical primary care encounters in deprived and affluent areas of Scotland. Annals of Family Medicine, 5(6) 503-510.
  8. Stuckler D, et al (2009). The public health effect of economic crises and alternative policy responses in Europe: an empirical analysis. Lancet doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61124-7.
  9. Information Services Division (2009) Alcohol Statistics Scotland 2009. Available at: [accessed 13/01/10].
  10. Leinonen J, et al (2004) Children's mental health in times of economic recession: replication and extension of the family economic stress model in Finland Developmental Psychology; 40(3) 412-429.
  11. Leinonen JA, et al (2002) The specific mediating paths between economic hardship and the quality of parenting International Journal Of Behavioral Development 26 (5) 423-435.