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2.1 the population of Lothian

  1. See [accessed 11/03/08].

2.3 the culture of alcohol use

  1. Scottish Executive (2007). Plan for Action on Alcohol Problems Update: 2007. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
  2. The Academy of Medical Sciences (2004). Calling time: the nation’s drinking as a major health issue. London, The Academy of Medical Sciences.
  3. Baggart, R. (2006). Alcohol strategy and the drinks industry: a partnership for prevention? York, Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

2.4 obesity and environment

  1. World Health Organisation (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a joint WHO consultation. WHO technical report series 894. Geneva, WHO.
  2. National Institute of Public Health (1997). Determinants of the burden of disease in the European Union. Stockholm, NIPH.
  3. Scottish Executive Health Department (2000). The Scottish Health Survey 1998. Edinburgh, The Stationery Office.
  4. Health Intelligence and Policy Unit (2004). Health and Life Survey: General Health and Well-being (Report 1). Edinburgh, Lothian Health Board.
  5. see [accessed 11/03/08].
  6. see [accessed 11/03/08].
  7. Budewig, K., et al (2004). Obesity in Scotland: why diets, doctors and denial won't work. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  8. Jackson, R. (2003). The impact of the built environment on health: an emerging field. American Journal of Public Health, 2003, Vol. 93, No. 9, p.1382
  9. Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (2007). The urban environment: summary of the Royal Commission Report on Environmental Pollution’s report. London, Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  10. Egan, J. (2004). The Egan review: skills for sustainable communities. London, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  11. Higgins, M. (2007). Health Impact Assessment and development planning, Scottish Planner, October 2007, p 4. See [accessed 11/03/08].

2.5 transport, health and sustainability

  1. Douglas, M., et al (Eds) (2007). Health Impact Assessment of Transport Initiatives: A Guide. Edinburgh, NHS Health Scotland.
  2. Scottish Executive Health Department (2000). The Scottish Health Survey 1998. Edinburgh, The Stationery Office.
  3. Frumkin, H. (2006). Urban vision and public health: designing and building wholesome places. GCPH Seminar Series Summary paper 5. See,com_docman/task,doc_download/gid,47/ [accessed 11/03/08].
  4. Scottish Executive (2006). Promoting Active Lifestyles. Edinburgh, The Stationery Office.
  5. Scottish Executive (2003). Let’s Make Scotland More Active: a Strategy for Physical Activity. Edinburgh, The Stationery Office.
  6. Besser, L.M.and Dannenberg, A.L. (2005). Walking to Public Transit: Steps to Help Meet Physical Activity Recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2005; 29(4): 273-280.
  7. Scottish Government (2007). Scottish transport statistics No. 26. Edinburgh, Scottish Government, Scottish transport statistics department See [accessed 7/01/08]
  8. Jacobsen, P.L. (2003). Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Injury Prevention 2003; 9: 205-209.
  9. City of Copenhagen, Building & Construction administration (2004). Copenhagen - city of cyclists. Bicycle Account. See [accessed 19/08/08].
  10. Department for Transport (2006). Transport Trends 2005 edition. London, Department for Transport. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  11. World Health Organization (2003). Heath aspects of air pollution with particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide: report on a WHO Working Group, Bonn, Germany, 13-15 January 2003. Bonn, World Health Organisation. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  12. Michal Krzyzanowski, M., et al (Eds) (2005). Health effects of transport-related air pollution. Copenhagen, World Health Organisation. See [accessed 11/03/08}.
  13. Air Quality Expert Group (2005). Particulate Matter in the United Kingdom. London, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  14. Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (1995). Asthma and Outdoor Air Pollution. London, Department of Health. HMSO. See, [accessed 11/03/08].
  15. Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (2006). Cardiovascular Disease and Air Pollution. London, The Stationery Office. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  16. World Health Organization (2006). Health effects of transportrelated air pollution. Copenhagen, World Health Organisation. See [accessed 17/07/06].
  17. Hedley, A., et al (2002). Cardio-respiratory and all-cause mortality after restrictions on sulphur content of fuel in Hong Kong: an intervention study. Lancet 2002; 360:1646-1652.
  18. Friedman, M., et al (2001). Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviours during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285(7):897-905.
  19. Institute of Environmental Health (1997). The non-auditory effects of noise (R10). Leicester, Leicester University. See [accessed 19/08/08].
  20. Morrell, S., et al (1997). A review of health effects of aircraft noise. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 1997; 21(2):221-36.
  21. Department for Transport (2006). Section 8: Health and the environment, in Transport Trends. London, Department for Transport. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  22. McMichael, A.J. et al. (2003). Climate change and human health: risks and responses. Geneva, World Health Organisation. See [accessed 11/03/08]
  23. Marshall, E. and Thomas, N. (2005). Traffic calming: The reality of 'road rage'. Home Office Briefing Note 12/00 2005. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  24. Department for Transport (2001). Crime and disorder on public transport. London, Department for Transport. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  25. Loukaitou-Sideris, A., et al (2002). The geography of transit crime: Documentation and evaluation of crime incidence on and around the green line stations in Los Angeles. Journal of Planning Education and Research 2002; 22:135-151.
  26. Appleyard, D., et al (1981). Three streets in San Francisco. Livable streets. London, University of California Press, 1981; 20-22.
  27. Macintyre, S., et al (1998). Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1998; 52(10):657-664.
  28. Macintyre, S., et al (2001). Housing tenure and car access: further exploration of the nature of their relations with health in a UK setting. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2001; 55(5):330-331.
  29. Social Exclusion Unit (2002). Making the connections: Final report on transport and social exclusion. London, Social Exclusion Unit. See http:// [accessed 19/08/08].
  30. MacGibbon, B. (1999). Inequalities in health related to transport. In: Gordon D, et al, (eds). Inequalities in health: the evidence. Bristol, Policy Press.
  31. Roberts, I. and Power, C. (1996). Does the decline in child injury mortality vary by social class? A comparison of class specific mortality in 1981 and 1991. British Medical Journal 1996; 313(7060):784-786.
  32. Scottish Executive National Statistics (2005). Social Focus on Urban Rural Scotland 2003. Scottish Executive National Statistics. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  33. Wikipedia (2007). Sustainable Transport. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. See http:// [accessed 11/03/08].
  34. Department for Transport (2007). Towards a Sustainable Transport System Supporting Economic Growth in a Low Carbon World. London, TSO. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  35. Scottish Parliament (2005). Transport (Scotland) Act 2005 asp 12. Edinburgh, The Stationery Office. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  36. Scottish Executive (2006). Scotland's National Transport Strategy. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  37. Scottish Executive Development Department (2005). Scottish Planning Policy: SPP17 - Planning for Transport. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  38. BBC (2005). Edinburgh rejects congestion plan. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  39. BBC (online) News Archive (2000). French fuel protests spread to UK, 8 September 2000. See [accessed 7/01/08].
  40. Ogilvie, D. et al (2004). Promoting walking and cycling as an alternative to using cars: systematic review. British Medical Journal. 2004; 329(7469):763.

3.2 multiple and complex needs

  1. Rankin, J. and Regan, S. (2004). Meeting complex needs: the future of social care. Turning Point and Institute of Public Policy Research. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  2. Rosengard, A., et al. (2007) A literature review on Multiple and Complex Needs. Scottish Executive Social Research. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive. See [accessed 11/03/08].

3.3 long-term conditions

  1. See [accessed 17/01/08]
  2. Scottish Executive Health Department (2005). Delivering for Health. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
  3. Scottish Executive Health Department (2007). Better Health, Better Care. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  4. Scottish Executive Health Department (2007). NHS HDL (2007) 10. SEHD. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
  5. Audit Scotland (2007). Managing long-term conditions. Edinburgh, Audit Scotland. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  6. Scottish Executive (2007). Living Well with Long-Term Conditions, report of the Open Space Events held Glasgow, Tuesday 13th February and Aberdeen, Thursday 15th March 2007. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
  7. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  8. Holland, R., et al. (2007). Effectiveness of visits from community pharmacists for patients with heart-failure: HeartMed randomised

3.4 mental health in old age

  1. See [accessed 19/03/08].
  2. World Health Organisation (2002). [accessed 10/08/07].
  3. Office for National Statistics (2006). Suicide Trends and Geographical Variations in the United Kingdom, 1991-2004, Health Statistics Quarterly, 31, 6-22
  4. Meadows, P. and Voltterra Consulting (2004). Economic Contributions of Older People. London, Age Concern.
  5. Silverstein, M. and Ruiz, S. (2006). Breaking the chain: How grandparents moderate the transmission of maternal depression to their grandchildren, Family Relations, 55(5), 601-612.
  6. Lee, M. (2007). Improving services and support for older people with mental health problems: The second report from the UK inquiry into mental health and well-being in later life. London, Age Concern and Mental Health Foundation. See [accessed 11/03/08]
  7. Scottish Executive (2006) Delivering for Mental Health, Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
  8. Disability Discrimination Act (1995). See [accessed 11/03/08]
  9. Mentality (2004). Literature and policy review on mental health promotion in later life. Completed for the UK Inquiry into Mental Health and Well-Being in Later Life, London, Age Concern and the Mental Health Foundation. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  10. Scottish Executive (2007). All our Futures: Planning for a Scotland with an Ageing Population, Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
  11. Ory, M.G., et al. (1999) Prevalence and impact of Caregiving: A detailed comparison between dementia and non-dementia caregivers, Gerontologist, 39, 177-185.
  12. Schulz R. and Martire L.M. (2004). Family caregiving in persons with dementia: Prevalence, health effects, and support strategies. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12(3):240-249.
  13. Eloniemi-Sulkava U., et al (2001). Effects of supporting community-living demented patients and their caregivers: a randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49(10), 1282-7.
  14. Uncapher, H. and Arean, P. (2000). Physicians are less willing to treat suicidal ideation in older patients, Journal of American Geriatric Society, 48(2), 188-192
  15. Eisses, S. and Kluiter, H. (2005). Care staff training in detection of depression in residential homes for the elderly: Randomised trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 404-409.

3.5 managing medicines

  1. National Prescribing Centre (2002). Modernising Medicines Management - A Guide to Achieving Benefits for patients, Professionals and the NHS (Book 1). National Prescribing Centre and National Primary Care Research and Development Centre. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  2. The Scottish Government (2007). Better Health, Better Care Action Plan, Annex A – 2008/2009 HEAT Targets. Edinburgh, Scottish Government.
  3. WHO (2007). Progress in the rational use of medicines. Agenda item 12.17. Sixtieth World Health assembly (2007). Eleventh Plenary meeting report, 23rd May 2007. See [accessed 11/03/08]
  4. Pharma Futures (2007). Prescription for Long-Term Value, first edition. London, Sustainability Ltd. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  5. See [accessed 11/03/08].

3.7 auditing Equity

  1. NHS Health Scotland (2004). Diabetes in minority ethnic groups in Scotland – A report by National Resource Centre for Minority Ethnic Health in collaboration with the Scottish Diabetes Group. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
  2. Lothian Diabetes Managed Clinical Network and NHS Lothian Public Health Directorate (2008). Diabetes and disadvantage - a review of diabetes services for ‘hard to reach’ groups in Lothian. Edinburgh, NHS Lothian.
  3. The Healthy Woman’s Project and NHS Lothian Public Health Directorate (2006). Women with learning disabilities and carers experiences and views of cervical screening. Edinburgh, NHS Lothian

4.1 immunisation

  1. World Health Organization (2003), [accessed 11/03/08].

4.4 violence

  1. Krug, E. G., et al. (Eds) (2002). World Report on Violence and Health: Summary. Geneva, World Health Organization. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  2. Scottish Government (2007). Homicide in Scotland 2006/07. Statistical Bulletin: Criminal Justice Series. Edinburgh, The Stationery Office. See accessed 11/03/08].
  3. McClusky, K. (2007). from presentation made at Who Cares, We Care West Lothian Victim Support Seminar 15th November 2007. Violence Reduction Unit.
  4. Violence Reduction Unit (2006). Reducing Violence. An Alliance for a Safer Future.. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  5. Nicholas, S., et al (Eds) (2007) Crime in England and Wales 2006/07. Home Office Statistical Bulletin, 4th Edition. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. See [accessed 11/03/08]
  6. Hoskig, G. and Walsh, I. (2005) The Wave Trust Report: Violence and what to do about it . Croyden, Wave Trust. See [accessed 11/03/08].
  7. Violence Reduction Unit (2007).Violence Reduction Unit Strategic Plan. Glasgow, Violence Reduction Unit. See [accessed 11/03/08].

4.5 when the well runs dry

  1. Campbell, C. (2005). Oil Crisis. Brentwood, Multi science publishing company ltd.
  2. Dukes, J.S. (2003). Burning buried sunshine: Human consumption of ancient solar energy. Climatic change; 61: 31-44.
  3. See [accessed 19/08/08].
  4. Richards, P. (2005). The end of oil. The decline of the petroleum economy and the rise of a new energy order. London, Bloombury.
  5. Scottish Executive (2004). The Scottish economic report:March 2004. Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
  6. Lipsey, R.G. and Chrystal, K.A. (1995). An introduction to Positive Economics [pg 287-9]. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  7. Notzon, F.C., et al. (1998) Causes of Declining Life Expectancy in Russia. JAMA; 279 (10): 793-800.
  8. Johnson, P. (1998). 20th century Britain. Economic, social and cultural change. London, Longman.
  9. Lyon, A. (2003). The Fifth Wave, Searching For Health In Scotland. Edinburgh, Scottish Council Foundation.
  10. Kunstler, J.H. (2005). The Long Emergency. London, Atlantic Books.
  11. Handy, C. (1994) Ch 3: The Sigmoid Curve, In The Empty Raincoat. London, Hutchinson.