1.1 Mapping the obstacle course.

  1. General Registers Office for Scotland, 2002. Mid Year Estimate Based Population Projections for 2002-2018.
  2. NHS Lothian, 2004. Improving Care Investing in Change.
  3. Morris, R., Carstairs V., 1991. Which deprivation? A comparison of selected deprivation indexes. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 13(4), pp.318-326.
  4. NHS Scotland Performance Assessment Framework. Available from: [Accessed 01 August 2005].
  5. NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2004. Health Indicators Report – December 2004. A focus on Children.
  6. NHS Lothian, 2004. Lothian Health and Life Survey 2002. NHS Lothian, Edinburgh.

2.1 Policies and their impact on health.

  1. World Health Organisation, 1999. Health 21. The health for all policy framework for the WHO European Region. World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.
  2. Scottish Office, 1999. Towards a Healthier Scotland. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh
  3. Scottish Executive, 2000. Our National Health: a plan for action a plan for change. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.
  4. Scottish Executive, 1999. Social Justice: a Scotland where everyone matters. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.
  5. Scottish Executive Department of Health, 2000. Scottish health Survey (1998). Available from: [Accessed 01 August 2005].
  6. NHS Lothian, 2004. Lothian Health and Life Survey 2002. NHS Lothian, Edinburgh.
  7. Public Health Institute Scotland. Community Health and Wellbeing Profiles 2004. Available from: [Accessed 01 August 2005].
  8. Scottish Executive, 2003. Improving health in Scotland – the Challenge. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.
  9. Scottish Executive, 2004. Community Health Partnerships statutory guidance. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.
  10. Scottish Executive, 2001. Fair for All. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.
  11. Human Rights Act, 1998. Available from: [Accessed 03 August 2005].
  12. Disability Discrimination Act, 2005. Available from: [Accessed 03 August 2005].
  13. Lothian NHS Board, 2001. Strategy to increase rates of breastfeeding in Lothian 2001-2005.
  14. Gallimore, A., 2005. Evaluation of the Best Fed exemplar project phase two. NHS Lothian.
  15. Lothian Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Managed Clinical Networks, 2005. Strategy for Primary Prevention of CHD and Stroke. Available from: http://lhb-intranet/active/intranet.nsf [Accessed 31 August 2005].
  16. Scottish Executive, 2005. Respect and Responsibility. A strategy and action plan for improving sexual health. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh.
  17. Tucker, J. et al. on behalf of Healthy Respect External Evaluation Team, 2005. Final Summary report of external evaluation of Healthy Respect, a national demonstration project. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh.
  18. Hunter, L., Bennie, M. and Gillies, J., 2004. EC72: Lothian free emergency contraception through community pharmacies. Final Evaluation Report. NHS Lothian.

2.2 Tobacco.

  1. Department of Health, 1998. Smoking Kills: A White Paper on Tobacco. Available from: [Accessed 7 August 2005].
  2. Peto, Lopez et al., 1992, 1994. Applying attributable deaths calculated for the UK in 2000. In: Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries 1950-2000. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994. Available from: [Accessed 5 September 2005].
  3. Royal College of Physicians, 2004. Applying attributable admissions estimated. In: Nicotine Addiction in Britain, Royal College of Physicians. Available from: [Accessed 5 September 2005].
  4. Parrott, S. et al., 1998. Applying estimates of annual costs. Guidance for commissioners on the cost effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions. Thorax, 53 (Supplement 5, part 2), pp.S2-3. Available from:
  5. Scottish Household Survey, 1999-2002. Available from:
  6. General Register for Scotland, 2005. Mid-2004 Population Estimates Scotland. GRO(S), Edinburgh. Available from: [AccesseSd 5 September 2005].
  7. ASH Scotland & NHS Health Scotland, 2004. Reducing Smoking & Tobacco-Related Harm. Available from: [Accessed 7 August 2005].
  8. Scottish Executive, 2004. A Breath of Fresh Air for Scotland – Improving Scotland’s Health: The Challenge – Tobacco Control Action Plan. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.

3.1 Celebrating diversity.

  1. Human Rights Act, 1998. Available from: – [Accessed 31 August 2005].
  2. Scottish Executive, 2004. Fair for All – The Wider Challenge. The Scottish Executive Health Department, Glasgow.
  3. Scottish Executive, 2003. Partnership for Care, Scotland’s Health White Paper. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh.
  4. Scottish Executive, 2002. Fair For All: Working together towards culturally competent services, guidance. NHS HDL(2002)51.

3.2 Equality and diversity in maternity services in NHS Lothian.

  1. Lewis, G., 2001. Why Mothers Die 1997-1999: The Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. London: Royal College of Gynaecologists.
  2. Lewis, G., 2005. Why Mothers Die 2000-2002: Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. London: Royal College of Gynaecologists.
  3. Ali, N., Burchett, H., et al., 2004. Experiences of Maternity Services: Muslim Women’s Experiences. London, The Maternity Alliance.
  4. Bowes, A. and Domokos, T., 1997. “‘I wasn’t rocking any boats’: Pakistani women, white women and their experiences of maternity care.” Maternity Action, 78, pp.6-7.
  5. Khatbamna, S., 2000. ‘Race’ and Childbirth. Buckingham, Open University Press.
  6. McLeish, J., 2002. Mothers in Exile: Maternity Experiences of Asylum seekers in England. London, The Maternity Alliance.
  7. Lothian Health, 2000. Maternity Services in Lothian: Consultation Process.
  8. Morrissey, B., 2004. Health Education for Ethnic Minorities in Lothian: Current provision and evaluation. (Unpublished medical student project available from Lothian NHS Board Library and Resource Centre).

3.3 Disability and health inequality.

  1. The Disability Discrimination Act 1995. Available from: [Accessed 2 August 2005].
  2. The Disability Discrimination Act (2005). Available from: [Accessed 2 August 2005].
  3. The Special Education Needs and Disability Act (2001). Available from: [Accessed 2 August 2005].
  4. Dahlgren, G. and Whitehead, M., 1991. Policies and strategies to promote social equity in health. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm.
  5. Scottish Executive, 2003. Improving Health in Scotland: the challenge. Available from: [Accessed 2 August 2005].
  6. Scottish Executive, 2004. Social Focus on Disability 2004. Available from: [Accessed 2 August 2005].
  7. Guzmán, J., Esmail, R., Karjalainen, K., Malmivaara, A., Irvin, E., Bombardier, C., 2002. Multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social rehabilitation for chronic low-back pain. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1.
  8. Department for Work and Pensions, 2004. Building Capacity for Work: A UK Framework for Vocational Rehabilitation. Available from: _rehabilitation.pdf [Accessed 30 August 2005].
  9. See for more information.
  10. NHS Lothian, 2004. The Lothian Health and Life Survey 2002. Unpublished data.
  11. Chartered Society of Physiotherapists, 2002. Health Promotion : Physical Activity and Exercise In: Selected Populations. Available from: [Accessed 30 August 2005].
  12. Saunders, D.H., Greig, C.A., Young, A., Mead, G.E., 2004. Physical fitness training for stroke patients. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1.
  13. Han, A., Robinson, V., Judd, M., Taixiang, W., Wells, G., Tugwell, P., 2004. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3.
  14. Feder, G., Cryer, C., Donovan, S., and Carter Y., 2000. Guidelines for the prevention of falls in people over 65. British Medical Journal, 321, pp.1007-1011.

3.4 Health and employability.

  1. Scottish Executive, 2003. Improving health in Scotland – the Challenge. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.
  2. Scottish Executive, 2005. Healthier Working Lives. Edinburgh.

4.1 Fuel poverty, achieving affordable warmth.

  1. NHS Lothian, Public Health, 2004. Director of Public Health Annual Report 2004.
  2. National Heart Forum, 2003. Fuel Poverty and Health; a guide for primary care organisations, and public health and primary care professionals. pp.17.
  3. National Energy Action, 2005. The Fall and Rise of Fuel Prices and Fuel Poverty. Energywatch communications section press release, 27th July 2005.
  4. Scottish Executive and Communities Scotland, 2004. Fuel Poverty in Scotland: Further Analysis of the Scottish House Condition Survey.
  5. Communities Scotland, 2002. Scottish House Conditions Survey.

4.2 Food and health in Lothian.

  2. Khush Dil, 2004. Khush Oil, South Asian Heart Project Report.
  3. NHS Lothian, 2005. Obesity in Lothian, paper for the Health for All Sub-Committee of the NHS Lothian Board, February.
  4. Scottish Executive, 2005. Improving Oral Health and Modernising NHS Dental Services.
  5. Scottish Executive, 2004. Scotland’s Biodiversity; It’s in Your Hands.
  6. East Lothian Council, 2004. Just for Starters – East Lothian Food in Schools Conference Report.

4.3 Transport and health.

  1. NHS Lothian, 2004. Improving Care, Investing in Change.
  2. London Health Observatory, 2005. Proposed Western Extension of the Central London Congestion Charging Scheme – Health Impact Assessment Report.
  3. Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, 2005. Access to Addenbrookes – a travel plan.
  4. NHS London and Transport for London, 2004. Developing and implementing travel plans: a good practice guide for the NHS in London.

4.4 Designing healthier communities – developing partnerships between public health and planning.

  1. Wilkinson, R. and Marmot M., ed. 2003. Social determinants the solid facts. WHO, Denmark.
  2. Jackson, R., 2003. The Impact of the Built Environment on Health: An Emerging Field, American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), pp.1382.
  3. The Local Government in Scotland Act 2003. Available from: [Accessed 29 August 2005.]
  4. The Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes (Scotland) Regulations 2004 for interim legislation introduced to ensure compliance with EU Directive: Available from:
  5. Progress of the white paper for Strategic Environmental Assessment. Available from:
  6. Ben Cave Associates, 2004. Spatial Planning Checklist for Healthy and Sustainable Communities. Milton Keynes South Midlands Health and Social Care Group, Wellingborough, UK.

4.5 Health Impact Assessment.

4.6 Planning for extremes: protecting health through emergency planning.

  1. Scottish Office, 1998. NHS Scotland – Responding to Emergencies.
  2. Scottish Executive, 2003. Managing Incidents Presenting Actual or Potential Risks to the Public Health.
  3. Department of Health, 2005. NHS Emergency Planning Guidance (consultation document).
  4. Health & Safety Executive, 1999. The Event Safety Guide.

5.1 Vulnerable populations.

  1. Scottish Executive, 2005. Building a Health Service Fit for the Future. A National Framework for Service Change in the NHS in Scotland.
  2. Royal College of Physicians (London), 1994. Homelessness and ill health. Royal College of Pysicians, London.
  3. Mackie, P. and Donnelly, P., 2001. Homelessness – A Big Issue for Primary Care. In Donnelly, P. Annual Report of the Director of Public Health 2001, Edinburgh Lothian Health 2001.
  4. Scottish Executive, 2005. Operation of the homeless persons legislation in Scotland: Quarters ending 30 June and 30 September 2004, and snapshot data on households in temporary accommodation at 30 June, 30 September and 31 December 2004. Available from: [Accessed 30th August 2005].
  5. The Homeless Advocacy Project, 2000. Homelessness and Health in Manchester. Manchester.
  6. Quilgars, D. & Pleace, N., 2003. Delivering Health Care to Homeless People: An Effectiveness Review. Centre for Housing Policy, University of York, 2003. Available from: [Accessed 30th August 2005.].
  7. Owen, K., Hendry, T. Rough Sleeping in Edinburgh – the Hard Evidence. A Pilot Research Study by Edinburgh Streetwork Project. Streetwork, Edinburgh.
  8. Donachy, E., 2001. Review of the Psychiatric Emergency Team at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital. Lothian Primary Care NHS Trust, Edinburgh.
  9. Lothian NHS Board, 2001. Lothian Health and Homelessness Action Plan (2002 Update). Available from: [Accessed 30th August 2005].
  10. Wilson, G., 2001. A mall survey: Homeless people in West Lothian – can a health worker help? West Lothian Healthcare NHS Trust and West Lothian Council.
  11. Scottish Executive, 2002. Homelessness: an action plan for prevention and effective response report from the Homelessness Task Force to Scottish Ministers. Available from: [Accessed 4th August 2005].

5.2 People who experience multiple emergency admissions.

  1. General Register Office for Scotland, 2003. 2002-Based Population Projections for Scottish Areas. Edinburgh. Available from: [Accessed 5th August 2005]

5.3 Improving service delivery in sexual health.

  1. Fraser, S., 2005. Promoting a Healthy Respect: What Does the Evidence Support? NHS Health Scotland.
  2. Healthy Respect, 2005. Schools Sex and Relationships Education Framework. Healthy Respect
  3. Street, J. and Whatling, E., 2004. Access All Areas: Linking Education and Health Services for Young People. Healthy Respect.
  4. Tasc Agency, 2003. All I Want: A Review of Specialist Sexual Health Services for Young People. Healthy Respect.
  5. Tucker, J. et al., 2005. External Evaluation of Healthy Respect. A National Health Demonstration Project, Final Summary Report. Scottish Executive.

5.4 Safeguarding children and families in difficult circumstances.

  1. Commission for Social Care Inspection. 2006. Supporting parents, safeguarding children. Meeting the needs of parents with children on the child protection register. Commission for Social Care Inspection, Newcastle. Available from:
  2. National Patient Safety Agency, 2004. Seven steps to patient safety: The full reference guide. NPSA, London.

5.5 Tackling Domestic Abuse: Prevention and effective intervention.

  1. Scottish Executive, 2003. Responding to Domestic Abuse, Guidelines for Health Care Workers in NHS Scotland.
  2. South West Local Health Partnership, 2005. Guide for Healthcare Staff in Primary Care Domestic Abuse.
  3. Rönnberg, A-K.M.and Hammaström, A., 2000. Barriers within the health care system to dealing with sexualized violence: a literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 28, pp.222-229.

5.6 Diabetes: Reducing inequalities by tackling chronic conditions well.

  1. Health Technology Board for Scotland, 2002. Organisation of services for diabetic retinopathy screening. HTBS, Glasgow.

5.7 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Reducing inequalities by tackling chronic conditions well.

  1. Scottish Public Health Observatory. Available from: [Accessed 12 January 2006]
  2. Figures for acute hospital admissions, Scotland 2001.
  3. National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions, 2004. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. National Clinical Guideline. Thorax, 59(1), pp.232.
  4. British Thoracic Society, 1997. Guidelines on the management of COPD. Thorax, 53(5).
  5. National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2004. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

5.8 Reducing inequalities by improving mental health and well-being.

  1. Friedli, L., 2002. Mental Health Improvement: What works? Mentality/Scottish Executive, Edinburgh.
  2. Lothian NHS Board, 2005. Promoting Positive Mental Health. Edinburgh.
  3. Lowrie, S., 2004. Developing an integrated strategy : the Lothian experience. Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 3(4), pp.6-8.
  4. Marcus, S., 2003. Depressive symptoms among women screened in obstetrics. Journal of Women and Health, 12(4), pp.373-380.
  5. Bennett, H. et al., 2004. Prevalence of depression during pregnancy; systematic review. Obstetric and Gynaecology, 103, pp.698-7-9.
  6. Hofberg, K. and Ward, M., 2003. Fear of pregnancy and childbirth. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 79, pp.257-260.
  7. Kumar, R., Hopwell, A., Lawson, C., 1994. Prevention of adverse effects of perinatal mental heath on the developing child. In: Cox, J., Holden, J. Perinatal Psychiatry the: use and misuse of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Gaskell, London.
  8. Glover, V., O’Connor, T., 2002. Effects of antenatal stress and anxiety. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, pp.389-391.
  9. Murray, L., Sinclair, D., Cooper, P., Ducournau, P., Turner, P., Stein, A., 1999. The socio-emotional development of 5-year old children of postnatally depressed mothers. Journal of Psychological Psychiatry, 40, pp.1259-71.
  10. Appleby, L., Warner, R., Whitton, A., Faragher, B. 1997. A controlled study of fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling in the treatment of postnatal depression. British Medical Journal, 314, pp.932-936.
  11. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), 2002. Postnatal Depression and Puerperal Psychosis. SIGN, Edinburgh.
  12. Lewis, G., 2005. Why Mothers Die 2000-2002: Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. London: Royal College of Gynaecologists. Available from:

5.9 Reducing inequalities by improving dental health.

  1. Scottish Dental Epidemiological Co-ordinating Committee, 2004. National Dental Inspection Programme of Scotland. Report of the 2004 Survey Of P1 Children.
  2. Scottish Executive, 2004. An Action Plan For Improving Oral Health And Modernising NHS Dental Services In Scotland. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh.
  3. Scottish Executive, 2002. Hungry For Success. A whole school approach to school meals in Scotland. The Stationary office, Edinburgh.

6.1 Mainstreaming pilot projects.

  1. NHS Lothian, 2002. Director of Public Health Annual Report
  2. Mathews, G., 2004. Khush Dil South Asian Heart Project. Project Report. NHS Lothian, Edinburgh.
  3. Bhopal, R. and Ineson, A., 2000. Meeting the health needs of minority ethnic groups in Lothian. Lothian Health, Edinburgh.

6.2 Setting priorities for action, intervention and investment.

  1. Hope, T., et al., 1988. Rationing and the health authority. British Medical Journal, 317, pp.1067-1069.
  2. Sackett, D L., et al., 2003. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. British Medical Journal, 3, 113-116.
  3. Naylor, C. D., 1995. Grey zones of clinical practice; some limits to evidence-based medicine. Lancet, 345, pp.840-842.
  4. Daniels, N., 2000. Accountability for reasonableness in private and public health insurance. In: Coulter A, Ham C. (eds). The Global Challenge of Health Care Rationing. Buckingham: Open University Press, pp.89-106. Cited by: Hope, T., Savulescu, J. and Hendrick, J., 2003. Medical Ethics and Law: The Core Curriculum. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone, pp.178-81.
  5. Beauchamp, T. L., Childress, J.F., 2001. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.12-13.
  6. Ibid., pp227.
  7. Bowie, C., et al., 1995. Consulting the public about health service priorities. British Medical Journal, 311, pp.1155-1158.
  8. Kitzhaber, J. A., 1993. Prioritising health services in an era of limits: The Oregon experience. British Medical Journal, 307, pp.373-377.
  9. Stronks, K., et al. 1997. Who should decide? Quantitative analysis of panel data from public, patients, healthcare professionals, and insurers on priorities in health care. British Medical Journal, 315, pp.92-96
  10. Hopton, J., et al., 1995. Patients’ perception of need for primary health care services: useful for priority setting? British Medical Journal, 310, pp.1237-1240.